In 2018, the average rate of change of the Portuguese Consumer Price Index (CPI) was 1.0% (1.4% in 2017). Excluding energy and unprocessed food, the average rate of change was 0.7% in 2018 (1.1% in the previous year).
The CPI annual rate moved from 0.9% in November to 0.7% in December 2018. The annual core inflation rate, which excludes energy and unprocessed food products components, was 0.6% (0.5% in the previous month). The CPI monthly rate was -0.2% (-0.4% in November and nil in December 2017).
In 2018, the annual average rate of change of the Portuguese Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) was 1.2% (1.6% in 2017). In December 2018, the HICP annual rate of change was 0.6% (0.9% in the previous month), 1.0 percentage points (p.p.) below the rate estimated by Eurostat for the Euro area.