At the end of 2012, the Iberian Peninsula was about 57.2 million inhabitants, which represents a reduction over 185 000 inhabitants, according to the results of the Population Censuses carried out in Portugal and Spain in the year before.
The population growth rate in Spain (14.6%) was significantly higher than that recorded in Portugal (2.0%), between 2001 and 2011. Regarding the infant mortality rate, the two countries have very similar values in 2012: 3.4 ‰ in Portugal and 3.5 ‰ in Spain.
In the period 2003-2012, the trade balance between the two countries is clearly favourable to Spain. In the EU-27 context, Portugal recorded in 2012, the 4th highest percentage of population employed in "Agriculture, forestry and fishing" sector: 10.5%. Spain stood at 13th position with 4.4%.